Glossary of Terms

Built-up Roof - A low-slope or flat roof covered with alternating layers of roofing felt and hot-mopped asphalt and topped off with a layer of gravel.


Cornice - The wood or metal finishing at ends or edges of building, including a fascia, frieze or rake.


Counter Flashing - The flashing that is embedded, or attached, and sealed at its top in a wall or other vertical structure and is lapped down over base flashing. Counter flashing courses horizontal rows of shingles or tiles.


Drip Edge - The strip of metal extending out beyond the eaves or rakes to prevent rainwater from curling around the shingles back into the wooden portion of the house.


Eaves - The lower edge of a roof (often overhanging beyond the edge of the house).


Eave, Ice and Snow Guard - A 3-foot wide rubber membrane adhered to the sheathing at the roof's edge that attempts to stop migrating water from entering your home during severe ice dams.


EPDM - A synthetic rubber membrane (ethylene propylene diene monomer), used on low-slope and flat roofs.


Felt - The bituminous paper used by roofers, usually made of a combination of asphalt and paper.


Fascia - A decorative board extending down from the roof edge either at the eave or at the rake.


Flashing - Sheet metal or other material used at various planes on a roof to prevent water leakage.


Frieze Board - A board at the top of the house's finished wall, forming a corner with the soffit.


Laced Valley - A laced valley, or woven valley, is a continuous run of shingles where two sloping roofs meet.


Rafter - Structural wood, usually slanted, to which sheathing is attached.


Rake - The slanting edge of a gable roof at the end wall of the house.


Ridge - The horizontal line at the top edge of two sloping roof planes.


Sheathing - Boards or sheet material that is nailed to the rafters to which shingles or other outside roofing materials are secured.


Shingle Flashing - Flashing that is laid in strips under each shingle and bent up at the edge of a chimney or wall.


Pitch (Slope) - The number of inches of vertical rise in a roof per 12 inches of horizontal distance.


Soffit - The area that encloses the underside of that portion of the roof that extends out beyond the sidewalls of the house.


Square - One hundred square feet of roof or the amount of roofing material needed to cover 100 square feet when properly applied.


Underlayment - The material (usually roofing felt) laid on top of sheathing before shingles are applied.


Valley - Where two sloping roof sections come together. Shingles in the valley are cut in a “V” direction, exposing the valley flashing fabric.


Valley Flashing - The metal or fabric in valleys, extending in under the shingles on both sides.

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